The Cerdà Agenda
XXI CENTURY : PEOPLE AND NEIGHBORS
Another architecture for everyday life
Blanca Lleó , PhD Arch
Why is so valuable to man their private space ? Perhaps it is the expression of a dream of freedom and individual autonomy ? Or because the inhabitant lives today as an imaginary house antidote to the uncertainties and risks of the XXI century? Is housing an “oasis on demand” in a society whose only future projection technologies was the almighty ? Is innermost stronghold from which to exercise like never before full power ? The private sector , which promoted bourgeois culture in cities by the end of S XVIII, evolved while the people emerged as specific , circumstantial and different individuals. However we can not forget that the comfort, privacy and intimacy – the very essence of the house as we understand it today , represent a recent conquest democratically established in the West from the mid-twentieth century. For the fragmented and decentered subject of contemporary society , housing symbolizes much more than a shelter , it is your stronghold domain identity and own world.
Reflecting on the domestic space is inevitably think first on the subject that inhabits the individual and society of our time. And it’s also think about the means that science and technology provides us each day, which improved while our existence become more problematic .
In the modern project and never before , housing is the protagonist of architecture. The need for private space emerges while the struggle for the emancipation of the subject. “There is no modernity without rationalization , but also without formation of a subject – in-the- world feel responsible to themselves and to society ” ( Alain Touraine, 1993 pg.262 ) . Rationalization and subjectivation appear as essential concepts of modern dream . Modernity as an attempt to carry out the ideals of reason has been defined by the effectiveness of instrumental reason , ie , the domain of the world through science and technology. But this is only half of the modern project . The modern project as a project of social renewal , in addition to placing reason over dogma , and above is the statement of the subject as freedom and added: freedom and right of choice and participation, identity creation and life itself. This is the other half. So what differentiates the modern project of modernity is essentially the belief in the subject , actor , agent, or just in our case , a resident of the house.
Le Corbusier talks about a new spirit called to ” help the alienated man of his time to give meaning and authenticity to your own life.” Mies van der Rohe and identifies significant right from the new times , that is , ” give the spirit a chance to exist.” Similarly , the architecture of Alison and Peter Smithson is “responsible to the sense of identity and affiliation of the person who lives there .” ( Lleó, 1998)
Today, as no other city sleeps this very awake, the activity of our hyperconnected world 24 improvements the day happens relentlessly. With globalization and new communication systems, the desire for modernity has no boundaries and comes with persuasive messages to the farthest outposts of the planet . The result is an ever-increasing contradiction : on the one hand increases the domain of a bureaucratic , self -destructive economic system and the environment , on the other uncertainty and fear of society , loss of freedom and autonomy of the subject “…. . widening gaps and tensions in several overlapping aspects : innovative regions that attract talent and to ” have it all ” and exporting regions talent “have nothing ” ; competition increasing and devastating in power between the cities of second class, from Detroit to Nagoya or Bangalore, to get jobs, people and investment , and increasing inequality in the world and even among the most successful and innovative regional centers ” (Florida, 2009 pg .43 )
Freedom, individualism and civic loneliness.
The history of modern housing is associated with an individualist revolution, or in other words , a desire for individual freedom.
The achievements of modern technology applied to housing have contributed significantly to achieve this degree of freedom way , from the use of new materials (concrete, steel and glass) in the early twentieth century , systems of control and comfort environmental 70s , and already in recent times , connectivity thanks to computer and communication systems. Today , for many, the domain of privacy is the last bastion of individual freedom in the complex and overwhelming late capitalist society.
In the chapter entitled Urban Individualism Flesh and Stone Gorgeous essay, author Richard Sennet , takes us through the early nineteenth century , when urban development employment movement technologies , public health and private comfort to prevent the revolutionary demands from the crowds , while favoring the interests and claims of individuals. He then began the “age of individualism ” in the words of Alexis de Tocqueville whose most negative consequence presaged a kind of civic loneliness ” each person behaves like a strange concerning the fate of the other …. As regards the fate of their fellow citizens , you can mingle with them , but do not see them , touch them but do not feel ; . exists only in himself and for himself if on this basis still exists in his mind a sense of family, and not there is a sense of society ” (quoted in Sennet , 2002 pg . 344).
Speed and comfort are central facts of modern life and are the seeds of individualism. In the eighteenth century , medical research deduced that the space was designed for body movement , as the person moving freely felt more independent and individual. Modern times are characterized by dynamism and acceleration, people move so fast that the speed insulates space bodies where they move . Furthermore new technologies allow a sort of ubiquity in real time and what is more , a virtual presence of fictitious identities . Culture of the atom , the basic unit of matter , we have gone to the culture of the bit , the basic unit of information, this means that many determinants for the individual and society have gained unprecedented mobility having been released from the weight of gravity . ( Negroponte , 2000). Moreover, Sennet linked individualism to the degree of comfort which grew so rapidly during the industrial revolution as the need for respite for weary body work. Comfort is a state we associate with rest and passivity. Individual comfort reduces the degree of stimulation and responsiveness , which serves to isolate themselves from others . This individualism produces a certain social order as people coexist and tolerate each other for indifference. It has lost the sense of sharing a common destiny. The difference and indifference coexist in our cities and diversity does not induce people to interact . People do not embrace the difference , is the difference creates hostility and the best that can be expected in this multiculturalism is tolerance. ( Sennet , 2002).
Currently run along the west city or emerging countries , we see masses of individuals in frantic motion, all isolated of all the indifference to the strange and different, and increasingly encapsulated in its technological prostheses ( phones, headsets , computers , etc . )
In this gritty urban environment , housing is for every citizen , his private sanctuary of comfort and passivity. The domain of the private, symbolizes the last bastion of peace, where you can finally connect or disconnect at will – in an extremely hectic and full of uncertainties world. Today, people crave the domestic space to compose not so much physical fatigue as the emotional and mental stress of everyday tensions and conflicts.
Through networks and advanced information and communication technologies , citizens can influence from their homes , trading and exercise power growing. Today you can access almost all the services that the city offers without leaving home . In fact the new technologies allow and foster new forms of confinement as a result of new systems hyperconnection with the world. An extreme case – that is increasingly common outside of Japan, where it is said that there are already millions of young people – is the radical isolation of hikikomori and young people who decide to shut himself in his room for years , you never leave home or talk to anyone and are not permanently connected to the computer , however , the mobile and TV . Most of these cyber hermits are ( or have been ) brilliant students , only children alone since childhood, who could not cope with the stress of the demands and requirements of a competitive society. Hikikomori (inhibition , confinement , isolation ) is not a disease itself , but a social condition, experts say. Life on the web provides the individual the ability to play with multiple identities. Emerge a new paradoxical idea of freedom, and that this is a virtual and fictitious than real freedom. Cash impaired communication skills , increased anonymity , especially in large cities , and the collapse of mutual cooperation between neighbors, are the main factors determining this new form of civic loneliness.
The isolation of the individual increases with globalization and increased mobility . The accelerated toward global mega-regions of economic development , displacement has extreme multiculturalism and diversity of urban populations . In this context of advanced economies , society demands diversity and new spaces for everyday life commensurate with emerging modes of life and the profound changes in human relations .
From the standard solution to the versatile difference.
The type family has been since the industrial revolution , the basis for structuring housing in the modern city. However, this social organization , it can still be considered today as the single generalized formula of coexistence. In cities and urban mega-regions that today are home to 50 % of the world population , multiple forms of grouping are when it comes to inhabit the space of everyday life : sharing or migrant students , single parent , single temporary or permanent , family weekend, women and migrants in host emancipated youth , warm bed, or elderly widows realquilan rooms , “My mine and Ours ” , divorced with shared custody , child adoption , guardianship adolescents, caregivers dependents , etc. . All these life situations involving a wide range of affiliations – by agreement , convenience or necessity, not limiting the coexistence between people , the classic relationship of couples with children.
This radical change in the lifestyles of today’s society should encourage new ways of thinking about the living space . This is the change that is taking over modern family type to contemporary social diversity.
In general , the supply of various products in the field of domestic architecture is scarce. Why ? Probably the developers have not yet reacted to a change in demand , because ” for good and evil society is changing faster than his dwelling ” (Vicente Verdú 07.01.07 , EPSTendencias 2007). In contemporary – individualistic and consumerist culture – all objects, services and products are offered to satisfy the desire for personalization, choice and suitability . Every person wants to identify the most with what we socially define ( car, work clothes , hairstyle , leisure , lifestyle , etc. . ); Undoubtedly the home and place where one lives , are crucial in this regard. A century ago, the challenge of the modern project , in its quest to democratize access to dignified housing , raised standardization, serialization and repeat as necessary innovation . Today is essential to think , plan and offer diversity , versatility and flexibility in the architectural space solutions for everyday life .
An initial reflection carried out in teams and compiled in the book Inhabiting Report ( White Lleó, 2006) led us to 12 thematic areas where architectural ideas and project analysis ( 161 cases ) allowed forward proposals for the present and future domestic space . Only then we state the topics covered in this essay:
1. Housing and something + : the dimensional and the onset of additional spaces , future events or places growing areas in the home.
With new construction , structural and environmental control systems, the existing home can conquer previously inaccessible pockets , suspending bodies flown by adding or incorporating removable architectures peripheral areas . For example, the ” outdoor room ” becomes an area housing more than capable of adapting to changing needs and changing climatic conditions .
Two . Continuous space : the ability of objects and furniture to define the uses and changing domestic actions , and the need to identify with the subject of his private world with more flexibility and greater freedom.
The predetermination of use and function of the stays – type ( bedroom, dining room, kitchen, etc) is now , in many cases, an undesirable imposition . Ownership involves activation and intervention. The fluid space reflects the contemporary lifestyle : open , dynamic , not permanent center , interactive , and permanent transformation .
Three . Changing Space: the use of the potential that provides the technology as a means to enable adaptation to the uses and domestic activities.
The changing room is flexible space , the place is changed and recualifica on demand . In recent decades, new information and telecommunication technologies , digitization, automation, wireless networking , etc. . allow us to think more and more the house as an ” oasis of the letter ” a place of control and full power to the activities of both public and private man . The rapid changes in our lifestyles demand a and transformable mutant contemporary housing , capable of responding to “as who, how, and when sorted ” .
April . Wildcard space: an ambiguous space , without predetermined use, multifunctional and versatile , that only defines the user.
The total area of the housing means having a degree of freedom for the appropriation according to the will and identity of the inhabitant . In words of Robert Venturi , ” valid useful ambiguity promotes flexibility ” ( Venturi , 1966 ) . In contemporary house dweller is the protagonist of the space, it is he who ultimately defines the dwelling house.
May . Repetitions and Variations: Maya , systems or geometrical laws involving a linear or spatial seriation solutions.
In some cases a certain configuration variables , and in others are variations due to more or less flexible industrialized building systems . At ” home series ” Corbusian and Taylorist rationalization, the ability of contemporary technology adds more complexity to address and offer diversity.
6. Strategies: the process is part of the project , an open road capable of integrating multiple factors : social, ecological, political, artistic , technological, economic etc . that determine it .
The strategy and plan of action and anticipation of the future is the most complete way to capture the complex reality of contemporary architectural fact .
7. Allotment without hierarchy: No function stays , no use without convention program.
The functionalist modernism first arose in specific parts specialized housing uses, form follows function was his motto. But today, contemporary housing can no longer widely determining standard applications . Thus, the sum of rooms without bootstrapping , which refers to an anti-modern and pre-modern organization is another formula for structuring the hypermodern domestic space for freedom and versatility that gives the contemporary user.
8. Core Housing : grouping and setting the technical, as opposed to the release of the remaining space of the house.
One of the paradigms of modern housing is definitely the Farnsworth House by Mies Van der Rohe from 1946 to 1951 . From its crisp spatial configuration , many variations have been derived as the immovable element can act in many different ways : as a generator center , and indoor-outdoor filter, such as division of property, and distribution range as a structural solution, etc. . This formula provides a degree of organizational freedom , and at the same time provides a system structured solidly . The concentrate of the facilities contributes to the economy of means . The strategic position of the core or cores , makes the most dynamic and extensive offering different modes of travel with alternative plant movements .
9. Dispersed Housing : increased benefits and ( . Garage, TV room , terrace, deck, etc. ) components leads to the fragmentation of the house.
The dispersed housing arises from the sum of parts and no fractionation of a given area , it is therefore no addition and division. Ultimately , understanding the spatial discontinuity , can also be seen as extensions of second homes or weekend home , and virtually car, mobile phone, laptop, etc. . This composite satellite parts, defines a fuzzy idea of home that best new forms of coexistence Fits ( dispersed families , non-family groups , provisional emancipation , children of separated parents, older dependents, etc. . ) , Labor systems emerging ( work at home, temporality and job mobility , teleworking, etc. ) , and in addition to the new ways of life. Diffuse housing or housing searches atomized adaptation to an inevitably complex and multiplied life in time and space .
10. Home From Section : like situations allow spatial continuity and richness in the three dimensions .
The free section faces the law of gravity with technical solutions to generate fluid spaces and improving prospects , the sunshine , the sights and especially the versatility of use. It is put innovation at the service of freedom of space in the dwelling.
11. Negotiating boundaries: the boundary conditions of housing, and the ambiguous and complex division between the parts and the whole , the individual and the collective, the interior and exterior.
The negotiation of the limits derived from the high – density and strong compaction both in plan and section , the current collective housing. It is also a result of the problematic distinction between public and private . Gaps, places dual function (alternating or simultaneous ) , neutral borders , Intermittent appropriations, changing turnover , etc. . resources are in defining the boundary of the property . The value of buffer zones and diffuse spaces confer a spatiality rich in possibilities for the complex and contradictory border areas of bounds.
12. Dimensional accommodation ( Tetrix ) : the division of the whole complex where each unit is a different piece of a puzzle in three dimensions.
The standard modern housing block is formed from a regular grid of horizontal and vertical divisions forged units type cuts , this rational operation of a proposed subdivision is identical with slight spatial variations or parts. In contemporary domestic architecture, a more than superficial volumetric division and a more complex and diverse division arises . The value of contemporary spatial richness adds functionality to modern hygienist . The property can now be designed in m3 overcome the constant section of modern rationality .
These twelve lines of thought converge and end in a common premise: the progress of the project towards modern contemporary, raises the conquest of new degrees of freedom and complexity to the housing in order to respond to new lifestyles . The identification of residents with their housing, versatility , flexibility and spatial quality are priorities in the project of architectural space for everyday life and in the future.
Need for communication : gaps and gaps .
The city is the greatest invention of man, it has its origin in economic activity , industrial , trade and innovation result of human creativity and scientific and technological achievements. As a space for exchange and communication , it is also since its creation over 5,000 years ago , the place of the great conflict , fruit of eternal irreconcilable tension between the desire for individual freedom and community ties . Since 2008 and for the first time in history , 50% of humans live in cities . And in Europe , where 25 % of the land is urbanized , the urban population reached 75% . The change has been dizzying , think that just over a century 90% of the population was rural and only 10 % of people lived in cities . The city is the desire of craving for knowledge, prosperity and contact with others. The language and the need for change , defining the peculiar condition of the human species as a casual and fortunate rarity of survival in the long history of life on earth. Man is the only living thing that requires constant innovation both as the lasting welfare . It is certainly in the cities where we can find the various opportunities arising from incessant transformation and at the same time the most advanced means of pleasure and comfort. At the same time, the conflict arising from the constant tension between the mutations and the entrenched habits, both individually and collectively , is inseparable from the urban reality .
As an architect who designed and built , especially interest me , spaces that link the buildings of flats with their urban environment , since they create a gradient from public to private that promotes civic integration and connectivity.
Chapter heterogeneous accumulation ( conflicting things ) , Sola Morales talks about the interesting coins away and expressive term ” spatial promiscuity ” when examining the distance between the building and the street. This is when trying impoverishment of architectural distance and a defensive architecture in modern suburbs syndrome , he advocates the overlap distance, precisely to overcome the limited functionality , dangerously speculative whimsy and current planning. ” The application of different criteria on the pattern of combined distances can create order or confusion and can create promiscuity middle ground : an uncertain and deliberate but not evident by the way , open to change, a way that is different in every perspective. , irregular in appearance but rigid in their location ” (Sola Morales, 2008 , pg.120 ) This distance between the public and private offers numerous opportunities to project intermediate spaces as places of collective use indeterminate that foster contact and exchange into and out of the building . ” But – empty empty space from the perspective of what is use – not in shape for his many attributes assigned and the many forms assumed its edges ” in the words of Sola Morales. The vacuum stylistic free conditions, is designed as a form of ” spatial promiscuity ” or ” overlap distance” . So to join the parts of the building and its vicinity , the vacuum becomes vital space casual collective dynamics …. ” or in places that are simple interruptions from your own everyday movements such as the places you stop to tie your shoelaces . Such places are also significant perceptual level because they refer to the space of movement “( Gordon Matta Cark interview with Liza Bear in Avalanche, 1974 , cited in White Lleó Dream from Inhabit pg . 135). The movement is one of the essential components in the work of Matta Clark , their expressions or dynamic volume Animated geometry make reference to both the conception of the work and its perception. As the work of Le Corbusier Promenade Architecturale -la Piranesi or Richard Serra, their statements can not be reduced to flat , and their works are dependent on the spatial displacement and moving viewing experience . ” you have to walk ( … ) , completely defy objetual quality ( … ) The reason for the existence of this gap is that the ingredients can be viewed from a mobile , dynamic . You must see them moving through them , imply a kind of kinetic, internal dynamism ” . ( Cit in Matta Clark bdrm Dream pg 136 )
We then asked , with Sola Morales, Would it be possible then project the void as the quality of space ?
The urban spaces ( street, square, crossroads , staircase, setback , corner …..) are possible places for exchange and communication for conflict and confrontation, celebration, integration and collective expression . It is essential to project these worlds located as intermediate thresholds , transits or approximations between the public space of the street and the private space of the home.
The vacuum within the architectural structure of a building involves the integration of intermediate places in order to establish a relationship of continuity open to the urban environment on the one hand , and social spaces to foster community life and other neighborly contact .
Building and Mirador building in Sanchinarro lattice .
Sanchinarro is one of the new residential PAUS Madrid . His frantic development – along with their neighbors and neighborhoods Montecarmelo – Tables in the market has close to 50,000 new homes within 10 years. With the current crisis , a considerable part of these homes are vacant and for sale .
The planning of these new districts due to speculative assumptions. Seriation and homogeneity of architectural shapes and distances between buildings is such that each element is an isolated urban and disjointed piece. The street- existent , low density and inhuman proportion of streets ( roads rather ) trade, not encourage nor the mixture or the city life urban scale . As Sola Morales says , in this urban ” how dangerous is not only the zoning of the territory, but the mechanical extension ( ….) that draws a sclera , rigid and impassable city.”
O In this environment , we have carried out with the Dutch MVRDV two projects, the building and the lattice Mirador building, both are intended as a critical reflection on the mandatory low density closed block . It is to question and seek alternatives to the urban structure of the residential buildings , the standard solution is indifferent to the contemporary city and its inhabitants , and seems to be due only to the fixed criteria of the more conservative production. Both projects emphasize the ability to establish communication links between the building and its surroundings, and not just street next level but also at the level of district and territory. The vacuum allows us to accommodate the necessary social space for communication place that belongs to everyone in the house , whose core competence is encourage interaction , and dilute the boundary between inside and outside. As explained above , it is about creating gradients of privacy , that is, establish gaps between the public street and the private pocket of each dwelling.
Thus, in the Mirador building you opt for a large central hole as a reference integrator neighborhood life in the lattice instead building, the whole joint is articulated with a combination of open and closed bodies volumes . Our intervention is limited to the scale of architecture , however the proposals are opened beyond its performance limits or trying to radiate links influences the surrounding urban planning for a simplified set of disconnected fragments, and autism forms. These specific solutions which are reflected in buildings, but perhaps inducing extrapolated general ideas.
The premise of the two proposals is simple: break the block low density , since this hybrid compromise between spreading apple and modern open block , contains many defects and few of the virtues of each of the two alternatives. For example, the general building and fenced introverted small apple, beside the excessive width of the road and the lack of services or small businesses on the ground floors , foster a city with no communication, no center of civic loneliness. Surprisingly ” the apple ” is the dominant structure of all newly created PAUS Madrid .
El Mirador building stands as an outburst , in a defiant manner , before the overwhelming homogeneity of the neighborhood residential product , emerges as a milestone that would remind us of the critical importance of domestic architecture in construction ( constitution ) of the city. The building is also a frame and an observatory of the mountains and the distant horizon. The 500 m2 large gazebo located 36 meters from the ground , offers residents a community garden and outdoor space in height , to meet and enjoy the views. The circulation through the building draws ” galleries, vertical streets and squares ” in the extension of the urban structure of the city. The movement inside the building enters into relationship with the surrounding urban frantic movement.
The surprising interaction that this project has resulted in many different forums, makes us think that the building also opened to the physical environment of the city has also established media communication in the context that surrounds us .
The lattice building is not a singular building , but a edificatorio system , a structure ( combinatorial ) fluff that can take many configurations. In both buildings and lattice – Mirador – vacuum is essential for making the connection between the private sphere of the home and the public world of the street. In the Mirador building, the volume of the block to be placed vertically becomes introverted and collective – autism – in gazebo courtyard , the great void centralizes neighborhood relationship. With this strategy , it is the social space built complex opens to the city and territory. In apple perforated Celosía building alternative to the closed block proposed solution . The set consists of 30 empty and 30 blocks built . Gaps are community open spaces, transit areas for future enjoyment , neighborhood relationship and communication with the urban environment ; intermediate points between street life and domestic privacy. The apple sponge , birds , wind and the sun through the building . From the street, in every yard and from each house , the eyes in multiple directions intersect ; through courtyards unusual perspectives suspended between the inside of the apple trees and the distant city skyline and the mountains open.
El Mirador building with a total of 165 homes , contains a variety of situations and types of housing , reflecting the diversity and individuality of today’s society . Against rationalist serialization and repetition of the household type , a reasonable repertoire of various kinds as an expression of the versatility and flexibility in the organization of everyday life in contemporary society arises . It is integrated into one building different social groups and different ways of life . As if it were a metaphor for the city, the whole nine volumes grouped by way of neighborhoods. Outside, each of these 9 groups of homes, is identified and differentiated from others through the different combinations of modulation and position of the holes , as well as various materials, textures and colors used , three types of stone three different prefabricated GRC ceramics and three type ” tile ” up the game volumetrically facades. The structured 20-story set contains 35 plants of different housing types grouped into 15 families : senior housing, duplex housing , housing square corner apartment with wet cores in front, triplex housing, etc. . In all the types , structure and facilities are located on the perimeter of the property, thus the interior layout , organized with plasterboard partitions can be altered easily. To support the adaptation to promote the identity that each inhabitant dumps at home. For example , the house with wet cores in front, explores the hedonistic enjoyment of the daily cleaning time by placing sink, toilet and shower in front. It is therefore high floors and with spectacular views of distant prospect. Also the front of the kitchen occupies this position of freedom in its openness to the sky and horizon. On this floor , it seeks to privilege the few daily moments that allow the enjoyment of home – perhaps the morning shower and time to prepare dinner – at the expense of other more reclusivas daily activities such as sleep or entertainment computer or TV . In these experimental types should be allowed freedom of choice , something that today does not give the winner a social housing.
The lattice building poses a versatile type of family homes . Based on a construction of single mold , a limited number of variations to meet the 146 housing units is conjugated . The property consists of a sum of stays without programmatic determination to the shower room and storage spaces are added. The sequence of spaces within the house, reinforcing the transition from public to private that the structure of the building contains . In the whole built of full and empty over the street to the most intimate of the rooms in each house , is set to a gradient of privacy. Each of the 24 yards in height , is the threshold of the house to which it gives access . Its use as a condominium meeting and community life is versatile and will be a future desire and conditioning according to the consensus of the neighbors. The conveyed the threshold of each house , the first room is an outside room , a sort of vestibule – use versatile deck which provides the required isolation distance between the house and the neighborhood playground . Then stay for collective use lounge , dining room , kitchen gives way to more individual and private rooms of the dwelling unit . The storage space outside the rooms for use not mortgage guarantees by localization in dividing the sound insulation between adjoining dwellings. As an alternative to the conventional solution and yet ineffective and face of wardrobes, these storage reponden to greater accumulation of objects of our hyper-consumerist society. “The factors that feed the stream cosumista are ( … ) the dissolution of social ties , the decline of feelings of belonging to a community, the growth of uncertainty, embrittlement of professional and emotional life , relaxation family ties. ( … ) consumerist furies allow ” pleasuring ” feast on small joys compensate for a lack of love, links or recognition . frustrating the more fragile or social and inter- linkages become more living grows and attracts evil consumerism as shelter, escape, small leak to remedy loneliness and the feeling of incompleteness ” ( Gilles Lipovetsky . paradoxical happiness. Essay on society hyper pg . 279.280 ) definitely individualism to which we have referred above, is strongly linked to palliative consumption.
From optimism to uncertainty.
The house , prosthetics and prophylaxis.
Forms of relationship between human beings, are rapidly changing because of the last techno-scientific revolution in which we are immersed and whose capacity to transform lifestyles , is comparable to that caused by the industrial revolution and the invention of printing . A new company called digital, postindustrial , information or hypermodern is the realization of this profound change and its unpredictable consequences. This has inevitably bring a genuine domestic revolution, the house today , beyond their physical structure or their mythical protector character , space is a transformation , because inevitably reflects the most pressing vital dysfunctions of our time.
Since the last quarter of the twentieth century , rapid advances in cybernetics , biotechnology and nanotechnology are problematically blurred the boundaries between man and machine. Analyze some aspects of their overlapping relationship within the domestic space , is to investigate new ways of living that are shaping the present and the future.
The more confident in the transformative power of new technology assert that traditional dreams of protection, privacy and comfort , deposited in the home until recently, today we add the new dreams of omnipotence , that is, the total power from the home through the machines as new citizens sharing with us the domestic space .
The idea of housing as an added technical prosthesis appears, superimposed both the subject and the place. For example, a well-connected Western executive is ” at home ” in non-places (airports , hotels , supermarkets, … ) , as well as a family of fishermen in Bali or Senegal, inhabiting the world from their modest cottage across mobile, satellite and the internet . No doubt that these prophylactic devices are completely disrupting our conventional system of human relationships .
If the first machine age , the house is a machine for living in the second house as driver age and prophylaxis prosthesis is strongly linked to the body and its mechanical extension, technical and biological . Following this concept of home we could talk about a new inhabitant – until recently science fiction , and that according to various authors is appointed mutant replicator , man-machine cyborg, hybrid or quasi – object. For example , the engineer , sociologist and philosopher Bruno Latour , notes from the beginning of the modern project , the unquestionable awareness of the existence of hybrids or middle earth, inseparable mixture of object and subject . ” The modern constitution allows expansive proliferation of hybrids while denying its existence and even its possibility ( …..) but when our world is invaded by frozen embryos , expert systems, digital presses , robots with sensors, corn hybrids , databases , psychotropic drugs , whales equipped with radiosondes, gene synthesizers , audiometers , etc . , when our newspapers display these monsters throughout its pages, and none of these chimeras feeling well installed on the side objects or on the side of the subjects, or between, then something must be done …. Another much wider field , much less controversial , has opened before us ….. is Empire Earth Media, as vast as China and equally unknown. “
From this point of view , we are shown a complex system and impure existence , no longer offers the only promising face of science and technology, but also more uncontrollable and unknown to him. Today detected in the clear air of man ambivalence toward technology , a growing fear of the inability to control the capabilities and the risk of them derivative. Since the second half of the twentieth century , the perception has changed considerably . If Le Corbusier in the twenties , conceived the object types as slaves to serve man dúciles , then demonstrated the fact that his vision was overly optimistic , and that over the years we have seen as economic and social systems industrial production, are exerting great control the transformation of everyday life and not always for the benefit of man . In a way, we are now able to reveal the liberating machine is also alienating machine.
For example , let us pause for a moment to the most common machine of our homes. The TV is the prosthesis of the quintessential contemporary house , the open window to the world , selectively and in real time , connected to the subject via satellite or cable with the global network. From an apocalyptic view , Jean Baudrillard believes that its presence in the home is an uncontrollable invader domain and an investment Worlds capita, telematics , ability to regulate everything from afar, dilutes the opposition between the public sphere and the private sphere . In a dominant position and multiplied , enters the TV at home and pervasive visibility and forced injection of externality . Communication is forced extroversion of all interiority . The primary aspect of networks is its elusive nature and dematerialized , so their true tracks , rather than being physical and being in the house, are psychic order and remain in the subject who inhabits.
” … the clear difference of an outer and an inner , describing exactly the domestic scene of objects , with its rules and boundaries, and sovereignty of a symbolic space that was also the subject . Now this opposition is diluted in a kind of ” obscenity” where the most intimate processes of communication in our life become the virtual ground of the media feed the contrary, the entire universe comes to unfold arbitrarily on our home screen . makes all this pop scene preserved above the minimum separation of the public and the private , the scene depicted in a restricted area, according to a secret ritual known only to the players. “
Is obscenity what he says too visible – Baudrillard – where everything is dissolved in the information and communication. We live in the ” ecstasy of communication ” and that ecstasy is obscene, mirror finished yet , every glance , every image and every representation ends . The strong pressure of the saturated space information makes us less free, we are multi- terminal networks.
But on the other dialectical pole position inclusive Latour , looks like the new tenants of private scene , these technical objects called extended networks are loaded with machines man who finds salvation in them . Pretender man threatened by machines, when the reality is that is included in them, has distributed its members among them and with them has built its own body , it is not understood that the subject has defined itself by multiplying things , the rest is to reduce the subject to an essence. The offset and human nature , is the set of their delegates and their representatives , their figures and their messengers.
Anyway, to the effects of this technology, we live the old dichotomy of apocalyptic and integrated . The domestic space as technological prosthesis is seen by Baudrillard in a negative sense when unmasks the nightmare of self-destruction of the real, the body and the house, have become superfluous and useless. By contrast , Latour offers a vast territory to discover, in the promise of a dream of power, which will put the union between nature and science, between society and technology, between body and machine. So, nightmare or dream to self-destruction ?
Sustainability of functionalism
The early twentieth century and especially the interwar period was a time of great and profound changes, inevitable consequence of the spirit of the times. The second industrial revolution , and therefore the expansion phase of industrialization , is characterized by an emphasis on mass production, economies of scale and mass consumption . New technologies and building materials, providing a new architecture tool to change society ; harbored this idea as a certainty in the minds of all avant-garde architects . The project found at modern advances providing industry circumstantial vehicles and yet full of symbolism with which to convey the message of renewal of the new architecture . And the problem of dwelling , modern housing , many architects to be the first duty of architecture in a time of renewal .
Domestic utopias of the past half century , reveal a time of change and hope but also of uncertainty, in the constitution of a new future , proposals of houses conducted by Fuller, the Smithson or Archigram , provide revolutionary solutions incorporate the latest technology space of daily life .
Probably many of the circumstances we now determine the solutions of the domestic space , are rooted in years 50 and 60. And is that the progress of scientific and technological innovation, dramatic speed gain after the second world war, which has continued to accelerate until today . After the disasters of the war, the speed with which discoveries are happening in all fields of science, let the man dream of total control of their environment. It is especially important as influence the transformation of living space technology space travel that both led to the advancement of electronics, communications and biomedical engineering , humans created the first simulated microcosm of feedback and self-sufficiency, since which looks for the first time the earth, and therefore looks at himself in relation to it.
Regarding the modern project , the fifties begin what will be the profound questioning , not so much of his spirit, but reductive formalist and has come to the evolution of functional rationalism formulation. The review , expand horizons in an open understanding of modernity. The rupture of uniformity, is assumed as a step forward in the evolution of modern mature project in the belief that the shape must not be predetermined or for materials or for the function.
It’s about creating the right environment to human activity putting new technology to architecture and society . The importance from the human point of view are environmental facilities as configuradoras of architectural spaces are studied in two fundamental works then: ” Mechanisation Takes Command ” Sigfried Giedion in 1950 and “The Architecture of well-tempered environment” Reyner Banham in 1969. These studies , which analyze the evolution of architecture from the mechanization of the human environment , come to fill a historiographical vacuum at precisely the time when the development of environmental control technology takes a leading role in the architecture.
In the early twenty-first century , the presence of the technical bodies at home and its ability to control and communication, has exceeded the most exaggerated expectations of the sixties. How then could imagine the unlimited power of networks and the transcendent presence of personal computers in homes ? The clip -on sixties, today translates into something less tangible but more decisive : Connection telematics – prosthetic units and individual – home digital networks . And it’s not only the control and communication of the internal environment , increasingly from the private sector was a decisive influence in politics , culture and the economy on a global scale .
Today, one of the more advances that can transform our habits of daily life in homes, is the explosion of touch technology has already been installed from us via mobile and aims to integrate the object – making and weightless virtual – on a screen. Microsoft prepares its Natal project that completely eliminates the controls, and gesture recognition using sensors and cameras. Its validity and success lies in that it is an intuitive formula approach to information technology . Following this trail , televisions also prepare a radical change in thinking by controls that respond to gestures and voices of viewers . More advanced haptic devices should be , ie that when you press a virtual button , you receive a response similar to that felt in reality. The door opened with the Nintendo Wii console that revolutionized the world of toys and is displacing and Sony Play Station. The future of technology goes further and enters directly into the body language and voice recognition . ( Ramón Muñoz , El Pais 19.08.09 pg.27 )
After integrated technical achievements in housing throughout the twentieth century, the most recent technological advances, make us dream of an unusual release in the domestic space. At the same time we asked again for the emancipatory power of science and technology that promised us the modern project. And when politics no longer has much to offer , art is instrumentalized , beliefs and philosophy is unable to explain the world we live in, we have the devotion to technology to support our faith in the future. ” … Technology is about to lose its alienating character and become a part of our lives unnoticed , merged with the environment and our biology. Already exists an affordable , everyday , washable and functional technology, integrated into our lives. And the forecast is to multiply your presence . “
But amid a rapid development we live in uncertain doubt, torn between fascination and fear of meeting a dehumanized world and out of nature. “Human remains beast panting and breathless to the grab tool that does not know , progress seems so hateful as laudable , in spirit all is confusion , and feels a slave by insane things , and has the feeling of release , a relief, an improvement. Gran period of crisis and especially moral crisis. overcoming the crisis is to create the state of mind for understanding what happens … “
Today we are increasingly aware of the fragility of the earth, for it is they are arguing with unprecedented intensity , environmental problems of our world. Some speak of exaggeration in estimates and others that we underestimate the incalculable and irreversible consequences of human activity and powerful modern technology. The balance between achievement and the risks we take , is a source of uncertainty. With advances in technology , do we create more problems than they solve ? Or rather , are we today really in a less risky position thanks to the benefits of new technologies , modern medicine , globalization and knowledge? As Jared Diamond says in his book Collapse, many people suspect that even the threat of suicide – ecocide – manslaughter for global ecological civilization has come to overshadow nuclear war and emerging diseases. ” They will behold someday bewildered tourists the rusty remains of the skyscrapers of New York as we contemplate us today the ruins of Mayan cities covered by jungle ” ( James Diamond, Collapse. Why societies persist and others disappear . Mondadori , 2006 pg . 24). The environmental impact of human issues are controversial and face contrary opinions. For example, on one side are those who did not doubt that the exponential population growth and increased per capita impact of people are determining the environmental degradation factors. On the other, it wields the sustained economic and population growth is both possible and desirable.
According to Diamond the most serious environmental problems we face are twelve, the destruction of natural resources ( habitats , natural food sources , and soil biological diversity) , the roof or the limits of natural resources (energy , fresh water and photosynthetic ) capacity , harmful substances or elements that produce or moved ( toxic chemicals, alien species and atmospheric gases) and finally the increase of the human population ( population growth and economic growth). ” The whole world society today runs a sustainable path and not any of these 12 problems ( … ) would suffice to limit our way of life in the coming decades . ( … ) For example , forest destruction tropical ( … ) shall be absolute in the world except the basins of the Amazon and Congo rivers in twenty-five years. If current rates continue , within a few decades have exhausted or destroyed most of the marine fisheries are worldwide , we will have exhausted the oil reserves and cheap , clean and easily accessible natural gas, and we will have approached the limit of the photosynthetic ceiling ” . (Diamond , Collapse, Mondadori Barcelona 2006 pg . 643 ) All these problems are interlinked and it is obvious that the population increase substantially affects everyone else. Today, television and consumer goods ads reach the most remote places on earth showing the standard of living of the First World. He sucks the entire world population , and many so-called emerging countries – China , India, Brazil , South Korea , Malaysia, Singapore, Russia , etc. – because they’re getting progress with great speed and tenacity . If this were achieved and acceded to Third World living standards of the West, the impact on the environment would be absolutely untenable, as it is since the First World maintains its present course since this exhausting both its own resources and those of the Third world. The dilemma stems from a critical situation , as I achieve balance , fostering a decent standard of living for the entire world population without exceeding the limit pressure of global resources and therefore without mortgaging the future of all ?
With the current technological capabilities , we are increasing the uncertainty and risk to cause complex situations of great danger . Old problems solved these technologies , advanced to far less than the new problems created by the rapid development pace of current technology .
In recent years and facing an energy crisis , we are witnessing a new momentum and commitment to technologies that encourage change and developing renewable energies. Wind energy and solar energy , seem to have a good perspective on Spain by exceptionally favorable conditions of wind and sun. The implementation of clean energy in our country has acquired in recent years an important development. The special – boom certainly encouraged by state subsidies and by profit as business profitability almost immediately solar parks has meant that in two years , from 2006 to 2008 , we have gone from 144 to 2661 megawatts ( MW ) of power installed , which Spain has become the world leader ahead of Germany and the U.S.. Also Spain has overtaken Germany and Luxembourg in per capita output in this field with 75w/habitante . But not everything shines on solar energy , as plants without permits and damage to natural areas darken their development. The size of these solar farms grows disproportionately and in many cases the inspections have detected the lack of network connectivity to evacuate the electricity produced by the photovoltaic panels or lack of permit companies to make the catch . The concentration of the ” photovoltaic megaplants ” (over 20MW ) and industrial facilities , which function as a central thermal – , does not sit well with the spirit of a distributed renewable generation and offset . ( Javier Rico Country 18.07.09 ) .
No doubt these energy sources are gaining an increasing weight in the production of energy, but can not deny that it is a long-term bet . Today , in September 2009 , PV uptake in Spain reaches 3,354 MW of installed capacity while the Ministry of Industry is to prevent fraud while trying to solve the technical difficulties for the relevant inspection and supervision of future projects.
The role of architecture , when meet the challenges of a more active role in environmental protection , is crucial. Recent assessments estimate that if the energy consumption in buildings worldwide, continues to increase at current rates, the building could get to consume the same amount of energy and transport industry together in 2050. It is not just a quantitative matter , the responsibility of architecture is fundamentally based on the ability to represent the aspirations of his time. The symbolic nature and proximity to the lives of people – both the architecture of the events and the everyday – life architecture make in a privileged means of communication. We are aware that the construction and artifice is always a transformation of the environment , but it is aware and avoid the negative impact promoting a more rational use of the means at our disposal (materials , manufacturing processes , building systems , transportation, energy savings and water , waste treatment , etc. . ) . The opinion of the whole society , is more powerful than we sometimes think , able to switch targets , weapon systems and industrial products . Thus , a sensitized with environmental demands , you can certainly transform and building systems industries related to the construction and management of buildings, in the not too distant future. The beauty and creativity are not limited when it comes to complying with these premises , unlike the architectural history shows us how many of the best ideas are reflected in appropriate solutions in line with adjusted means. By contrast , the culture of ostentation , wealth and unjustified waste, produces banality that good architecture.
Technology, power and freedom seems an inseparable triad of homo sapiens. The need for mastery , autonomy and extent of their capabilities , has prompted the man throughout the centuries to technical progress as a result of the achievements of knowledge and relentless innovation . Do not forget that human beings are the only living being that besides being constantly seeks change. However, in less than a century we have gone from the optimistic faith in unlimited progress , uncertainty and fear of an increased risk . If at the beginning of the modern project guided architecture functionality , it is now vital to put thought and action in sustainable architecture that contributes to environmental protection .
Building Mare de Deu de Port. Habitatjes to 97 per Joves in Montjuïc.
In the Zona Franca de Barcelona we performed an apartment project for youth in custom Regesa Bed . The set of 102 meters long and five stories high , is vital center a diagonal sequence of concatenated voids , ie intermediate scale social spaces that act as links between the public places of the city and the private domain . In the building of Mare de Deu, the built volume swells to integrate – by terraces, covered patio and local social – both individuals and the powerful housing complex environment and Montjuïc neighborhood .
One of the most pressing social problems of Spain , is late leaving the family home by minors . According to the Young Centre for Housing in Spain OBJOVI , ours is one of the countries of the European Union with greater delay in the age of emancipation of youth. So much so , that only 10 % was independent between 18 and 24 years , and the average age of emancipation is around 30 years.
Young people continue to suffer the worst working conditions . Currently , the unemployment rate for those under 30 years was 17.24% and 48.35 % affects the timing of working . In Spain , 60% of people with less than 1-year temporary contracts are young . Thus, the serious difficulties in the workplace and the limited supply of affordable housing opportunities , increasingly delayed the independence of young people, their accountability and full autonomy. This is not only unfair but also socially unsustainable because spoils our future as a society to waste valuable thrust and emerging talent of the new generation . This is especially important for the supply of rental housing for young surface as housing units set for first transition residence . The diversity of contemporary society demand specific solutions for different social groups , in this case they are individuals or couples who are preparing or initiating in the labor market and therefore have limited financial means.
Bet of the project is to achieve the highest possible degree of sustainability , not only in energy management but also in the construction system , spatial richness and urban and social integration. And all this without renouncing the quality of architecture and innovation.
Social sustainability involves the integration of diversity , through the provision of a set of varied and appropriate to different groups and lifestyle solutions. Thus, in the building, the housing program for youth , complete with a nursery and occupational center , both provisions are located on the ground floor , as adapted housing policy and local open but protected for parking bicycles. In the basement … places for car parking for motorcycles and … are located. The building , containing schedules uses and age groups and lifestyles so different, ensuring civic life and the vital presence throughout both day and night. Moreover, collective spaces open in the front, want to establish links with the immediate environment of the city, adjacent to the sports fields and the magical presence of the mountain. The architect Felipe Pich- Aguilera adds, ” … I would emphasize the urban dimension of the building , ie its ability to revitalize the neighborhood in which it is inserted, not only through the interaction of its mere presence , but in its ability to generate qualified urban context , linking in turn to interior tours of the building , which itself claims to be a continuation of the city itself , with its own streets , points of connection , community facilities as well as housing ….. strictly private . This is important because normally the administrative planning processes tend to empty the architecture of its urban form and much of the ” urban ” decisions , are set apart from its final realization . ” ( Pich- Aguilera 2009 pg7 )
The communal spaces are a sequence consisting of several open and covered terraces and two multipurpose rooms including washing and drying machines . This solution Laundry, with a long career , ranging from Soviet communes to modern units and room corbuserianas Anglo – campus , makes the usual casting becomes a social act that fosters communication and sharing among neighbors .
Each of the 97 apartments, has an area of 40 m2 with a bathroom and a front integrated kitchen . It is an open space and therefore free organization , according to the interests of each user. Everyday life actions ( sleep, read , eat, connect , relax , etc … ) and its furniture, determine the distribution , except as site Toilet, there is no compartmentalization.
The surface of each housing is tight, so it is interesting to extend both the volume , thanks to a generous ceiling height , and spatial perception through high external openness . Thus, each unit has a glass front floor to ceiling (2.81 m) and wall to wall (6.80 m) which is a large window 20m2 surface , ie half the useful area of the housing . This visual escape wide space and provides a virtual extension to the house. Also in the architecture to everyday life, the quality is as important as quantity .
At first instance, the architectural solution is to encourage passive energy control systems : good orientation , solar protection and natural ventilation. Thus, glazed surfaces of the housing ( 6,80 m x 2,81 m each), alternatively oriented northeast and southwest , provided in a high incidence of winter sunlight. Simultaneously, a set of vertical slats practicable , ahead of these surfaces allows control of solar incidence and darkening . Thus, the front settled into two layers ensures energy saving . Moreover, the double bay of the building ensures a density consistent with economic viability , however its compactness is qualified by a sequence of terraces interspersed gaps and foster cross ventilation assembly .
The construction system employed is a commitment to industrialization and sustainability. ” … It should be emphasized that in our current context , is already worth the not assume the inertia of the traditional ways of building and try to innovate in this area so neglected over the past decades ” ( Pich- Aguilera, 1990) The total mold system that we used is an innovation and a considerable saving of time and matter. The structure, facade and internal divisions are run once with continuous concrete screens 7, 10 and 16 cm thick. The formwork – made expressly for this project, is composed of a number of aluminum parts ( maximum area : 1.5 m2) without handling aids operators in each set . For efficiency and simplicity of assembly mechanism , each mold holds up to 500 uses. In this case both the patent, as the operators and the mold come from Colombia . The process involves a serial execution of the houses , which begins with the general assembly of the screens and slabs of each unit. On this network are rethinking and fix all facilities. Below formwork and pour ” in table ” superfluid concrete. 24 hours acquires 70 % of its strength and desencofra . The average time spent on what we call ” gray work ” is one day per household. Once this stage is only to fix joinery , flooring and paint directly . With this version, no chases are made , since housing facilities are embedded in the screens ( vertical and rush to each unit are recordable ) esconbros supposed not generate substantial savings of material, time , cleaning and energy.
As for the power generation system has been carried out a new formula of auto power production . Mare de Deu is the first residential building with a micro cogeneration , ie production of electricity from the combustion of gas. This system includes the production of domestic hot water boiler and gas central flat fee for all tenants. The micro CHP provides the usual power consumption while the consumption peaks are covered by a backup boiler . The excess electricity is discharged into the supply network which, by law , must buy surplus remains.
In parallel to the implementation of the project and work, and starting building Mare de Deu prototype we are developing custom Endesa energy research focused on new collection systems solar PV integrated into the architecture . The interest of this proposal lies in the need to bring to the consumption points called ” solar gardens” , from this perspective , cities and not the field , they become the ideal places to locate this type of implementation of photovoltaic electricity production . To do this , consider first, that large tracts of pickup elements in rural land , lacking any sense in urban land, not only by the high price of solar but mainly by the barrier and the impact that would result in the city map . Therefore the buildings have to be the systems that integrate sensors , to install solar panels on the countless buildings that the city is achieved , not decentralize , but atomize solar plants and their impact.
Moreover artifice of architecture supports an unlimited set of synergies with the parts of solar collection technologies . And this combination of elements of our proposal is based Sunflower Lama . The idea generator principle is simple: because our facades should be able to curb the impact of the sun, the elements that act in this regard may also be recipients of solar energy . Therefore in view of the protective synergy lamas will also scavenging , with one half get two effects. The pickup lama Lama photovoltaic or Sunflower consists of a vertical blade of 55cm wide by 280cm high system connected to a sensor that activates a motion solar tracker , like a sunflower, the blade moves through the day looking the highest incidence of solar radiation. Each house has on its front facade 12 lamas , so each person has a kind of small solar farm . The drive of the slats as solar tracker is automatic and works by default, trying to catch the maximum especially if the tenant is absent , but the manual position allows the user to configure its facade freely. The echo of the facade is a solar plant involved as shareholders and benefit all citizens , leading to a responsibility and an essential for active environmental protection awareness . As the saying goes , ” out of sight , out of mind .” For civic consciousness requiring large corporations to protect the environment , it is essential everyday actions of individuals . Therefore, the architecture has to participate in sustainability and also must inform inward – neighbors – and out – citizens – of the measures taken and to contribute. Because reporting is aware , the information is visible means of civic awareness . So on the south facade visible from long distance coming from the port , the installation of a large LED screen with real- time energy harvesting is proposed and electricity that it produces the building, with the saving and environmental benefit .
The range of colors used inside and outside the building, lime green, mustard and blue – gray is inspired more by the tone of the sky , the sea and the mountains nearby in the surrounding city monochromatic . Accessible terraces will finish as the artificial turf in two shades of green while non- vegetated cover visitables roofs.
The tall building as a solution for high-density housing , is the alternative to the expansive city of costly infrastructure development, huge energy consumption and high environmental impact . In recent decades , the idyllic aspiration to have a piece of land for each house , has resulted in a city of low density suburban periphery, which is unsustainable . This formula of modern times , which meant the adaptation of rural life to the industrial city , it seems obsolete to the enormous growth of cities and the impact of urban settlements . And today, the dream of owning a piece of land , is replaced by the possibility of achieving a piece of heaven on high floors . Our predominantly visual culture values the perspectives , views, and also the domain of an isolated position ; penthouses atop residential buildings have the maximum value, which not so long ago , to the first or principal was given. The elevator and security system invented by Otis in 1857 is one of the technological elements from half a century ago , more has changed the face of our cities. Having immediate access while away from the street in a few seconds to up to a world of noise-free privacy and other contaminants , is becoming increasingly attractive to the contemporary individual . The vertical concentration both upstream and downstream . The very common extension of the elevators to the underground garages , allows access to the house from the street via a private vehicle , almost automatic and prophylactic directly ; thus combines the expression of individualism and isolation of the “body liability ( that ) may lose physical contact with the outside ” in the words of Richard Sennett .
The proposal we have developed in the draft Bioclimatic Tower is a prototype for high-rise housing . Its overall structure is based on the premise segment and stack: split into parts assembly , overlapping groups of houses and flats interspersed collective use intermediate plants . These neighborhood spaces are “green gap” in view containing community generation systems , control and energy saving, recycling treatment plant for separation of water and treatment of waste, it is the user awareness and same time to dignify a rational use of the means at our disposal . The challenge is not only but also be seen to be , ie make visible expression of the condition of sustainable architecture.
In the intermediate terrace in which crowns the building are located : the feedback systems solar thermal , photovoltaic panels for electricity generation , alternative systems installations for micro -cogeneration , water treatment plants that greywater supplied by gravity to the immediately lower floors , rooms for waste separation , recycling space barter of second-hand items , etc. . Caucuses room , game room and fitness center, swimming pool , etc: Also, in these open spaces of neighborhood community meeting dependencies are installed.
Knowledge is the key means for awareness , so all the other spending and saving both energy and water , in sight and in real time on these intermediate plants. It is not, as in other past times , to flaunt the technical means available , quite the opposite , putting the sight of all, and not hide the systems for obtaining the habitual levels of comfort, should contribute to a more rational use of them. Undoubtedly, the false miracle of unlimited abundance , and induces waste ” out of sight out of mind .” Consider for instance the front panel of the vehicle , the information provided allows us and helps control fuel consumption and proper use . Look and learn is essential to start acting sustainably, both individually and collectively .
In bioclimatic tower, all homes have at least two direct solar hours between 10.00 and 14.00 . This means in our latitude, a clean and direct energy and thus considerable energy savings during the cold months . The set is built facing south with extensions east and west , form therefore reflects the movement of the sun and not a pure geometry with equal symmetry preset facades in the four directions. Each housing unit, has a facade as intermediate stay space buffer between interior and exterior , this green space is threshold greenhouse in winter and in summer. Its strategic position allows alternative loop route , which provides housing to a perception of a larger and more flexible and versatile organizational solution .
The treatment enhances the articulation facade stacked blocks . The whole structure at an intermediate scale , ranking among the unitary condition of skyscrapers and fragmented organization of individual housing units. Our proposal echoes the bright lesson teacher Saenz de Oiza in Bilbao Bank building automation and refined scale urban blocks . “The idea megastructure horizontal and sectoral conception of the tower also points to the problem of scale , with horizontal platforms such as intermediate element between the scale of the megastructure battery covering the entire building and the stacked trays expressing extratificadamente human scale ” ( Alfonso Valdes ) in his office building for the Bank of Bilbao 70s , initially intermediate – storey – 5 levels are technical plants , whose presence reinforces the technological status of this elegant high tech architecture .
In the XXI century, a new sensitivity to the technical problem – suppliers – elements simultaneously , is manifested in the presence of systems necessary efficiency and awareness for sustainability and environmental protection . The gaps in our tower , hosting these elements , and its location makes them ” green gap” for future enjoyment . After a lively and intelligent able to help support our world skin, underlying structure stacking , so that the building is revealed from the size of the neighborhood groups that compose it, between the expression of the whole and the detailed breakdown in units individual .
The greatest fear our time is the fear of pain . Was the fear of sudden death or the fear of being buried alive before. But ours is a society where the pain and loneliness are installed as a side effect of a long search for individual freedom. The disenchantment of revolutions, as lasting human connection , led us to configure the pleasure through the comfort to counter fatigue work and that made us increasingly numb. In trying to relieve weight sensory entered an increasingly passive relationship with the environment. The path of pleasure as then conceived the human body led to an increasingly lonely rest . But if it is possible to believe in civilization against the domain, that means accepting what exactly try to avoid loneliness , the pain lived , bodily and psychic fact different because it does not have anything in the outside world. Faced with the unbearable pain condition in solitude in contemporary society , we asked Richard Sennett How we leave our body no opposition ? What will drive us to most of us to become out looking for others to experience the Other ?
In the day we live fascinated by our growing capabilities and domain knowledge, but also felt the great scientific and technological developments can lead to an irreversible path of self-destruction. It is paradoxical that a globalized world we live when we are unable to think ourselves more in a common project , and yet the planet we demand joint action to preserve the environment in which we live. Sooner or later you will create the need and we have to understand in a common strategy. Or just the end will come.
The architecture is just the stage of life of individuals, a framework that does not have the power to change society as dreamed modern architects , rather it is its simple reflex. But at least we can still from our projects , we remove barriers , integrating gaps available and staging sites for communicative action to the touch and the opportunity for civic life to share solitudes awaiting our most human condition and essential impulse to fetch us in others.